From my listening experience I can tell you those are all dispatched by FRCC (Foothills 911). They first tested an IRLP-type setup to link Canmore to their center in Black Diamond several years ago. It seems to be in vogue for some of the southern departments as well these days. Probably cheaper than leased lines or microwave links, but I would be too worried about the uncertainties inherent in connecting via the internet myself (single point of failure, non-dedicated pathway, what happens if the net gets slow/goes down/etc).I did hear some links via computer [similar to IRLP] with departments along highway 23/24 south. Listen between 1800 and 1900 hours and you will hear these departments being brought up. I can't say if these links go any further.
Many rural agencies of all stripes have letters of permission to utilize the local RCMP repeaters to talk to the local detachments. Redwood is one of them.A number of EMS departments can talk to the RCMP directly on the PACS system.
This is due to the nature of digital radio and is present in any digital comms regardless of the brand/type .. it takes time to convert the analog signals into digital and then back at the opposite end.This is a strange one as listening on a CPS freq. and RCMP freq. the audio comes first on the RCMP freq. followed by a second or 2 delay on CPS.
The new provincial system isn't even built yet and I think that we will find that it will be a big mess from the beginning. They will need 4X as many repeater sites as with a VHF system. 700 MHz is far from ideal for a province wide system.The new provincial system at 700 Mhz will be a step down from what's available now in the Edmonton Calgary areas. At least Saskatchewan went with a VHF provincial system ...